That Divine Order

Music and the Visual Arts from Antiquity to the Eighteenth Century
That Divine Order
Music and the Visual Arts from Antiquity to the Eighteenth Century
By Peter Vergo
Phaidon Press, 2005
ISBN 0 7148 4351 2

The links between the visual and music arts has always been a strong one. This can be at the inspirational level, the structural or the theoretical. Both draw structure from mathematical linkages, whether it be divine proportion, the music scale, theories on color and note progressions. The assumption had been made since Pythagorean times of the divine nature of music and many artists aspired to bring that divinity across into the visual arts.

In this book the author takes an in-depth look at these issues and makes detailed comparisons between music and visual art practices. He also examines how the relationship changed over time. The book is divided into chapters that follow in chronological sequence over the long period of time the book covers, they are:
*    The Cry of the Phoenix
*    Spherical Music
*    Gothic Architecture and Polyphony
*    Divine Harmonies
*    Mode and Mood
*    Melodies for the Eye
*    Epilogue: Color-Music – The Art of Light
The Epilogue brings the book forward to the 19th and early 20th Centuries.

This academic book will appeal to students of art history and theory as well as practicing artists of a thoughtful and intellectual disposition. Well written and with thoughtful insights, this is an excellent book for those interested in exploring this important area. Recommended.

The Painterâ

A great book relevant to all traditional media artists and to digital artists who add traditional media to their digital works.
The Painter’s Handbook, 2nd Edition
Revised and Expanded
By Mark David Gottsegen
Watson-Guptill Publications, 2006
ISBN 0-8230-3496-8

Written by a professor of art at the University of North Carolina and closely involved with the international standards committee that covers artist’s paints and materials, you couldn’t find a more well conceived, written and executed book that belongs on the bookshelf of every practicing artist, hobbyist or professional.

This book is the best contemporary reference book on artist’s materials that I have seen and is also loaded with great, practical information that will benefit your day-to-day practice. The book is divided into three parts: The Basics, covering tools, supports, binders, solvents and pigments; Paint Making and Painting Methods, covering the making of paints and the differences between the main types; Picture Protection and Restoration, covering storage and shipping of artworks and conservation issues. Obviously in a book of some 330 pages it is not going to cover everything there is to know about all these topics. However, it does provide a great coverage given the manageable size of the book and more than enough information for most purposes. The only areas where one might resort to more specialized tomes is if diving into the more esoteric mediums, like encaustic, or in other areas where you are going beyond the needs of the average painter.

The book is a goldmine of accurate, current information presented in a mostly easy to read, enjoyable manner by an obvious expert. I doubt very much if even highly experienced and academically trained artists will not find new or more up to date information in this book. It ranges in scope from really helping you to understand bought commercial products to doing it yourself. The great information on sizes and grounds, for example, is worth the purchase price of the book by itself. And that represents only a tiny fraction of the content. Where appropriate, the author consolidates information into tables that make it very easy to make comparisons between approaches and what is required. The book is illustrated by drawings executed by the author and these are clear and appropriate. I am particularly impressed that the author has not limited himself to artist materials but also covers the key issues of storing and transporting art, areas that raise lots of questions and for which there is often poor advice provided, though not here. The section on conservation and restoration is also very useful, as which artist has not had a painting receive some damage due to time or transport that they have not needed to repair? Painting mediums covered include oils, acrylics, watercolors, temperas, encaustic, pastel and a variety of others.

Is the book perfect? No, but damn close to it. In the solvents, for example, I noted that the new citrus-based solvents are missed, despite these becoming quite popular with some artists, and I would have liked to see a fuller treatment of the ‘water-soluble’ oil paints, such as H2Oils by Talens. There is also a great section on photographing artwork, which includes digital capture, but I’d like to see some of the color accuracy issues of digital capture covered a bit more in the next revision. The only other possible failing of the book is that some artists might find certain sections a bit academic in approach.

So should you have this book on your bookshelf in your studio? That is a definite yes. All artists working in traditional media will get a lot from this book. Likewise those digital artists who also work with traditional art materials will benefit enormously from this book. The fact that this book does not cover digital materials is not a limitation, as it is a large enough topic to deserve a book of its own. Buy a copy as soon as it comes out in April 2006.

Photoflex Training DVDs

First of how-to DVDs on photography and videography of cars, swimwear, and action sports released by Fernando Escovar and sponsored by Photoflex
Press Release

The first in a series of DVDs on photography and videography of cars,
swimwear, and action sports has just been released by internationally
renowned photographer/videographer Fernando Escovar, it was announced
today by Sharon Reeves, president of Photoflex Inc., a principal
sponsor of the series.

“Photographing Cars 1.0” will focus on photographing automobiles, with
tips on how to prepare for a shoot, and numerous examples that range
from stationary studio setups to action shots from fast-moving camera

The other two DVDs are scheduled for release early next year.
“Photographing Swimwear” is set to debut in February, and will show
stylish, attention-grabbing ways to shoot swimsuit models outdoors.
“Aerial Action” is scheduled for April, and will zero in on photography
and videography over water and on land from a helicopter, shooting
subjects such as powerboats and automobiles.

“With DVDs fast becoming the textbooks of tomorrow, Photoflex sees this
new series of instructional videos as an excellent way to introduce
Fernando Escovar’s fun, eye-catching, and practical photography and
videography techniques to a broad audience,” Reeves states. “We’re
proud to be associated with this exciting project.”

Photoflex lighting equipment such as reflectors and softboxes appears
throughout the new DVDs, especially in capturing images of people. In
“Photographing Cars 1.0,” a large MultiDome softbox provides lighting
and fill in a cavernous studio. In “Photographing Swimwear,”
MultiDomes, LitePanel reflectors, and the FlexDrop2 chroma-key backdrop
are employed for still photography and digital-video lighting. In
“Aerial Action,” Escovar shows how Transpac Cases can carry still and
video camera gear in flight and how they can be secured and made easily

“In carrying out assignments over the years, I’ve developed a number of
exciting, fresh, and innovative ways to tell compelling stories through
still photography and videography,” Escovar says. “Now’s the time to
share them. Everyone from veteran pros to beginning amateurs should
benefit from these fast-paced, action-filled DVDs, which are packed
with valuable information that can be understood and put to work right

Escovar has photographed for magazines such as Playboy, Vogue, Motor
Trend, Player, Max Power, Las Vegas, Ocean Drive, Hot Boat, FHM (United
Kingdom), and GQ (Italian edition), and for corporations such as Honda,
Nissan, and NASCAR. Individuals have included David Beckham, Shaquille
O’Neal, Carmen Electra, Hugh Hefner, Traci Bingham, Tom Green, Edward
James Olmos, Martin Sheen, and Lisa

Clients for Escovar’s broadcast and cable TV commercials have included
MGM Mirage, Yokohama, Honda, DeskSite, and TradePortal. Subjects have
ranged from swimwear and other fashion, celebrities, to
high-performance cars and boats, pro football games, skydiving, and
video game covers.

He recently contracted to produce a new reality TV show, “Hollywood Hot
Shoots,” for Men’s Channel TV. It’s scheduled to debut in January 2006,
and will be distributed by Monarch Films.

A graduate of Otis School of Art + Design in Los Angeles, Escovar has
also written for photography publications such as Petersen’s
PHOTOgraphic, Rangefinder, and PHOTO (France).

As a principal sponsor, Photoflex will sell Escovar’s new DVDs in the merchandise section of its website ( for US$39.95 apiece. The DVDs will also be sold through (, Calumet Photographic (, Fotolia (, and Escovar’s own website (


Photoflex Inc. (
manufactures and distributes high-quality, versatile lighting equipment
for the worldwide photography, video, film, and digital-imaging
industries. Based in Watsonville, Calif., it also offers as an online resource for free photography
and digital-imaging lessons for all levels of photographers. And its
Web Photo School ( is the largest online resource for paid lessons, with many taught by leading professional photographers.

Adobe Photoshop Master Class

Second Edition: The Essential Guide to Revisioning Photography
Adobe Photoshop Master Class

Second Edition: The Essential Guide to Revisioning Photography

By John Paul Caponigro

Peachpit Press, 2003

ISBN 0-321-13010-3

Let me state up front that this is an amazing book and deserves a place
on the bookshelf of not only everyone working with photography
digitally but also everyone with aspirations in digital art.

John Paul Caponigro is a master craftsman digital photographer. I say
this because throughout his work, and through this book, there is the
fine and subtle attention to detail that separates the craftsman from
the dilettante. He is also an artist, taking the rather tired fine
print aspects of traditional photography into a whole new creative

The book is a mix of portfolio and wonderful educational tool. Chapters
take you step by step through aspects of digital imaging, color theory
and working digitally in monochrome to layer work and advanced blending
techniques. Nicely covered along with the technical issues are the
often overlooked but far more important issues of image composition and
design. The book is divided into six sections.

The opening section, Fundamentals: Input to Output has chapters on:

  • Architecture
  • Color management
  • Size
  • Input
  • 16 bit
  • Tone
  • Color
  • Comparison
  • Selections
  • Restoration
  • Sharpen
  • Softproof
  • Output I: Print
  • Output II: Film

And does a good job of not only covering these fundamental topics but
ensuring that the reader and author are using a common language for the
rest of the book.

The second section, (R)Evolutionary Techniques: Translating Tradition
does a good job of extending the traditional photography dialog into
the digital domain and potentials. Chapters include:

  • Color accuracy
  • Color expression
  • The language of night
  • Converting color to black and white
  • Infrared – black and white
  • Multitone
  • One source, many destinations
  • Atmospheric perspective
  • Local contrast
  • Contrast/contour mask
  • Edge

Along the way through these chapters the reader is drawn into
considering their images well beyond the mere technical aspects of
driving Photoshop.

The third section, (R)Evolutionary Techniques: Compositing for
Classicists concentrates on expansion, expansion of field of view and
expansion of dynamic range, to pick just two. Chapters include:

  • Extending format
  • Extending dynamic range
  • Reorchestrating light
  • Painting with light
  • Focus
  • Grain/noise

The fourth section, (R)Evolutionary Techniques: Alterations,
concentrates on compositional aspects of image design and, along the
way, gets you using Photoshop smartly. The four chapters are:

  • Scale
  • Proportion
  • Reflection
  • Elimination

The fifth section, (R)Evolutionary Techniques: atmospheric Effects,
concentrates on the aspects that often let down the beginning image
compositor, namely:

  • Atmosphere
  • Smoke
  • Snow/rain
  • Rainbows
  • Illumination
  • Stars
  • Lightning
  • Rays of light
  • Shadows

These aspects are tough because they often form the subtle clues that
we use to assess whether an image works, holds together and is
internally consistent. Again, while seemingly concentrating on image
design and aesthetic issues you learn some excellent Photoshop

The last section, ®Evolutionary Techniques: Montage, concentrates on
building on all the previous content when putting multiple images
together. Chapters include:

  • Skies
  • Recontextualization
  • Multiple exposure
  • Futurism
  • Multiplicity
  • The extended moment
  • Symmetry
  • Tessellation

This book covers a lot of territory in its 500 pages. None of the
techniques covered are introduced just for the sake of technique, they
are introduced and placed in a context that emphasizes the creation of
a strong overall image. The book is profusely illustrated and I like
the introduction to each chapter where the author shares the personal
experience of capturing the main image, responding to the location or
seeing the image evolve on the computer. This is something too many
authors forget to do. Yet it is so important in establishing trust
between the reader and the author that the information in the book
comes from great practical experience. It also clearly shows how the
author applies what he (in this case) is teaching to their own work.
The personal touch in this book is great.

As I effectively said in the opening, this is a great book. Not just a
collection of Photoshop techniques, as too many books are, it is rather
a collection of Photoshop techniques placed in the context of how to
use them to create really great images. In this sense it is far
superior to the technique only books, because what value is knowledge
without the wisdom of how and when to use it?


Every person working with photography on the computer will benefit from
this book. I use it extensively in my 1st and 2nd year undergraduate
(college) teaching of photography and digital art. All photographers
moving to digital should read this book from cover to cover and
actually try everything mentioned. You may not stay using all the
techniques, in fact you would hope not, but it will help you evolve
your own style and provide you with a solid base to do that. Digital
artists should also read this book, as it is loaded with good practices
and a good way of thinking about and crafting your images. Very highly

Mastering Digital Printing

2nd Edition
Mastering Digital Printing

2nd Edition

By Harald Johnson

Published by Thomson Course Technology, 2005

ISBN 1-59200-431-8

This book is, at the present time, the definitive book on digital
printing. In around 400 pages the author manages to pack in a huge
amount of information that can guide people through purchasing
decisions, outsourcing decisions and help with getting the best out of
either doing it yourself or dealing with print professionals.

Chapters include:

  • Navigating the Digital Landscape
  • Understanding Digital Printing
  • Creating and Processing the Image
  • Understanding and Managing Color
  • Determining Print Permanence
  • Selecting an Inkjet Printer
  • Choosing your Consumables
  • Making a Great Inkjet Print
  • Finishing and Displaying Your Prints
  • Using a Print Service
  • Special Printing Techniques

The book is profusely illustrated with well-chosen and designed illustrations and photographs.

The book starts off by briefly discussing the history of digital
printing and then gets into covering the printing spectrum. A good
section describes digital image terms and does a effective job of
explaining things like resolution. There is then a useful discussion of
conventional lithographic printing and other print technologies. A
chapter then follows on preparing your source image, whether scanned,
digitally photographed or created. A chapter on color management
follows, which does a good job, if a little briefly, of covering this
critical area. The author does an excellent job of covering image
permanence, a difficult topic, which he handles perfectly. The middle
section of the book covers inkjet printing, from how it works to media
choice, making a good print to how to display it. All well done. The
last section covers things like using a print service rather than doing
it yourself, special printing techniques and unconventional media.

Who should get this book? Basically it needs to be on the bookshelf of
educators, photographers, illustrators, designers, digital artists,
scrapbookers and anyone working with digital prints. It is a core
reference book and a great learning tool. Obviously in one book
covering such a huge area some sections are a bit light compared to a
specialist book on just that area, but it covers all areas well.

Can it be improved? Frankly the only thing I would like to see added is
a reference section at the back, with things like dimensions for US and
international standard paper sizes, conversion tables of common US and
international paper weights, guides to approximate corresponding paper
thicknesses, etc. That would make it a great day-to-day reference
source for an even wider range of people.


The Practice and Vision of Digital Artists

The Practice and Vision of Digital Artists

By Joseph Nalvern and JD Jarvis

Published by Thomson Course Technology, 2005

ISBN 1-59200-918-2

This is a book that I have actually been loath to review, both because
I know the authors and many of the artists involved and because of the
misunderstandings that this review will likely cause in some circles.
Well, so be it. The role of a review is to make a critical assessment
of a work, whether a book or exhibition, covering both the pros and
cons, and to do so from an objective as well as a personal perspective.
So on with it. I’ll start with the negatives and then finish on the
high parts. It is also worth pointing out that the negatives I will
point out are really mostly in the form of limitations, of missed
opportunities or narrow breadth.

The book attempts to examine the range of digital art practice by
allowing a group of artists to describe their own art process through
both a written and screengrab approach.

Part of the problem for this book is that digital art is such a broad,
and in my view, an abused term. It covers everything from making a few
changes to a photograph to elaborate digital constructions, from
hobbyist to commercial illustration, art and design to high art
circles, depending on the speaker. Digital art is also a medium that,
in delivery form, stretches from the printed image to web sites,
multimedia, video, movie and installation. Plus it can be interactive
or non-interactive. So, from the title of this book you might expect
that it will cover the whole sweep of digital art. It does not.

The approach of this book is, predominantly, to allow the digital
artists to speak for themselves. Seventeen artists were provided with
the same set of starting images and asked to produce a piece using
these images and to document their process. This approach is not new
and has been widely used before. The reason the authors describe for
doing this is to allow the reader to make comparisons between the
working methods of the different artists. This is the first problem
with the book. By imposing a limitation like this on the artists, the
authors have, in fact, interfered with the artist’s processes. For some
of the artists this does not seem to have been such an issue, as their
own process starts with some photographs. For others it seems to have
been a real stretch and been quite different to their normal way of
working. So then you have to ask the value of this from a comparison
perspective if what you are seeing is not their normal way of working
for an artist. It is artificial. In the case of some artists, I think
this lets them down.

Another issue is in the very limited range of artists chosen. Among the
17 there are no new media, video, web or installation digital arts,
only ones who tend to present their work as prints. Now first thought
would say that for a book this is a sensible approach due to
presentation limitations. But that would be a fallacy, since a
screengrab is a screengrab, whether from Photoshop or Final Cut Pro and
the printed book provides a limited presentation anyway of a final
printed work. Besides, many books have been successfully created that
address web, video and installation work processes. In practice it
would have been very easy for the authors to have broadened this and
provided some still images and some video footage, say, as a starting
point, if they had thought of it. Thankfully, one of the artists breaks
beyond the straight print and does some over painting. On the other
hand, if the authors had chosen to deliberately limit artists to the
print media, they should have clearly spelled this out and their
reasons for doing so. To leave it undiscussed creates doubt in the mind
of the knowledgeable reader, and that is not a good thing. An author
either needs to be the authority or to demonstrate that they are smart
and knowledgeable enough to work with and draw from the authorities in
a field.

The other limitation of the book actually lies in the choice of
artists. Not criticizing any of the artists chosen, since they all have
interesting things to say in their work, but at best most can only be
described as emerging artists. I use the term emerging artists in the
true fine art sense, meaning an artist who has had a lot of shows, has
achieved some critical attention and whose fine art career is taking
off in a serious way, in that there is serious attention being given to
their work by MAJOR institutions. I say ‘at most’, because some of the
artists are really better defined as commercial illustrators or
photographers, some as educators and some are hobbyists. That doesn’t
minimize how seriously they take what they do, but I have always felt
that in any book clearly aimed at educating, as this is, that it is
better to spell things out rather than leave them unsaid. So the book
misses out a bit by not having some ‘established’ and ‘late career’
digital artists included for balance.

Personally, I am not one who believes that anyone and anything can be
described as an artist and art. I believe it is better to spell out
that some people are dedicated amateurs, others commercial illustrators
or photographers, others just exploring some form of personal
expression and others career artists. The work of each group needs to
be judged by very different standards, and thus it actually does a
disservice to the people concerned to lump very different people
together and label them all artists. Contemporary fine art practice and
quality criteria are VERY different from those applied to commercial
illustration and photography, for example.

Another limitation of the book is in the quality of the work produced
and how it relates to the artists’ normal output. For some of the
artists, in particular, the work they produced is very different in
style and quality to that which they are known for. In other words it
does not reflect well on the artist. I believe this is a consequence of
forcing a starting point that is not the artists norm or may reflect
other issues of time constraints, etc to which we are not privy. I
think this is more an issue for the artists concerned, but I believe
reflects the artificiality of the constraints placed on the artists.

Another limitation of the book, which individuals will need to
determine whether it is a limitation or advantage, is its predominant
emphasis on practical, technical processes rather than aesthetic and
theoretical matters. Now some artists did touch on some of this but the
clear emphasis is on the technology.

Now to the good points. What the book does do is document the fact that
even with a limited starting point, there are many workflows and
processes that a digital artist can use, even within the limitation of
the print. This is the real strength of the book and in this sense it
works well. The obvious target readership for this book are beginning
digital artists, illustrators and photographers who are looking for
options. It is thus a good book for first year undergraduate (college)
practical classes in digital media and may have some application in
second year practi
cal classes. I will probably use the book with my
first year design and multimedia students for the purpose of broadening
their thinking about technical process.

The other thing that the book does is to show that digital art is not a
push button affair, b
ut is very much a process driven by the artist. In
this sense it will be useful for students to show them that digital is
not an excuse for a quick fix. It may also help to overcome some of the
limited thinking about digital art that afflicts some in the people
organizing art fairs, photo exhibitions, etc.

Another obvious target for this book is the camera club level digital
photographer who is looking to move beyond simple image manipulation.
For such an audience it does an adequate job of showing some of the

So, does the book work? The answer is both yes and no, depending on
where you are coming from. For many people the answer will be yes, it
does work. For me, it is only a limited yes. I will use the book in my
teaching, but more because there is so little out there rather than it
being the definitive book. Frankly I was disappointed, because I
expected more from some of the artists involved and from the authors.

I would like to see the authors do a followup book, that does not
impose the limitation of limited starting images, adds some new media
people and adds a couple of mid to late career digital artists to the
mix. That would exploit the potential the book had, overcome the
limitations that I see and also, I think, allow some of the artists to
better show their talent.

Digital Art Studio

Techniques for Combining Inkjet Printing with Traditional Art Materials
Digital Art Studio

Techniques for Combining Inkjet Printing with Traditional Art Materials

By Karin Schminke, Dorothy Simpson Krause and Bonny Pierce Lhotka

Published by Watson-Guptill Publications, 2004

ISBN 0-8230-1342-1

Digital Art Studio is a book about extending digital printing, mainly inkjet, by working with unusual media, transferring the digital image and overworking the digital print with other artist’s materials. As
such, it reminds me of the wonderful books on alternative photographic processes, like gum bi-chromates and cyanotypes, that I used to love in my darkroom days.

This is a how to book for digital artists, illustrators, photographers and crafters who like to get their hands dirty. If you have become bored with the uniformity and repetitive perfection of the digital print, this is the book for you. Chapters include:

  • Tools and Materials
  • Choosing Printing Surfaces
  • Creating Customized Surfaces
  • Underprinting Digital Images as a Base for Other Media
  • Overprinting Digital Images on Other Media
  • Wet Transfers to Absorbent Surfaces
  • Dry Emulsion Transfers to Non-absorbent and Dimensional Surfaces
  • Gelatin Transfers
  • Layering Prints with Collage and Paint
  • Creating Three-Dimensional Work
  • Printing on Fabric

There is also a useful glossary and resources section.

Written by three artists who have well established reputations as digital artists and print makers, the book is lavishly illustrated with their work. Step by step sections take you through each process. I like the fact that the book is not just limited to this step-by-step approach but also helps you to understand the basis of the process. This is essential, as everyone finds their own working process, this mix of a proven step-by-step approach plus a deeper understanding helps you to achieve this.

There is a good variation in the book from pretty simple processes to quite complex ones. All are handled well. You can read the book from cover to cover, as I did, or browse and dive in at random.

Who should get this book? I actually think anyone who is serious about their digital art and who works in print should get this book as a way to unlock your thinking, whether you actually use any of the techniques or not. Digital art students, design and photography students, crafters, art and photography hobbyists and scrapbookers looking to do something different should all buy it. I use it with my undergraduate (college) art, photography and design students to get them experimenting and thinking about alternatives.

Can the book be improved? Well, if they do a second edition, apart from adding any other processes the authors have come up with since this was written, I would like to see a section after the processes have been discussed that examines the aesthetic and conceptual thinking of an artist in how to decide when and why to use these techniques. The book is great, as is, at telling you how to do these things. I would like to see a section that discusses why to use them.


Sarah Moon’s photographs

Photographs by Sarah Moon

Thames & Hudson

ISBN 0500542503

Sarah Moon’s photographs became significantly over exposed (pun intended) in the 1970s

and early 80s. This retrospective of her work from the 90s and the year 2000 shows a very

different range of images, mostly in monochrome, with a much more dark and mysterious

air to them. These are stunningly interesting images, in their own right and also from the

perspective of showing how a photographer’s work can change significantly over their

career. Over some 280 pages a wide range of images, many of which have a very cinematic

feel to them, we are treated to images that explore often quite personal scenarios for Moon.

No digital manipulation here but good, straight photography. Recommended.

Art Today

This fascinating book looks at art since 1960 up to the present.
Art Today

By Edward Lucie-Smith

Phaidon Press

ISBN: 0714838888

fascinating book looks at art since 1960 up to the present. Very well
written as well asbeautifully illustrated, the book has a good,
in-depth look at art in the post-modernist era.Through eighteen
chapters we are offered insight into the processes and dynamics of
thevarious art movements of our time. Taking a truly world wide
perspective this is a book forcareful reading and studying, as well as
a flick through. There are brief biographies of theartists whose work
is featured in the book as well as an extensive bibliography and a

chronology of the period.

Chapters include:

  • Pop & After;
  • The Survival of Abstraction;
  • Minimal & Conceptual;
  • Land Art, Light and Space, Body Art;
  • Neo-Dada, Atre Povera &
  • Installation;
  • Neo-Expressionism;
  • Realism in America;
  • Post-Modernism and NeoClassicism;
  • British Figurative Painting;
  • New British Sculpture;
  • New Art in New York;
  • Out of New York;
  • Latin America;
  • Perestroika Art;
  • The Far East; African & Afro-Caribbean Art;
  • Racial Minorities; and
  • Feminist & Gay.

As you would expect in a book that covers such a range in 500 odd
pages, it does not go as deep as a book covering just one area. But
then the beauty of this book is its breadth of coverage, allowing you
to explore areas you are not familiar with and to also draw
comparisons. This is an excellent book that you just have to have. Well
written with well chosen illustrations, it is an ideal companion to
anyone exploring contemporary art. Buy it.